Sensors for Dialysis Machines


Patient-Centric Dialysis and Sensor Innovation

Explore TE's latest whitepaper on next-gen dialysis machines. Learn how advanced sensors enhance parameter control, improving patient care and comfort. Get expert insights on key considerations for sensor choices.

We understand the profound responsibility that comes with designing dialysis machines.  Dialysis machines are not just equipment but lifelines for those who depend on them. We know that for the engineers and manufacturers striving to create these vital systems, each decision is about more than just components and specifications; it’s about creating machines that can be trusted and that help to improve patient lives.

Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis

Healthcare professionals and patients depend on manufacturers for straightforward, easy-to-use dialysis solutions, whether for hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, in-facility or at-home use. Our comprehensive range of sensor solutions provide precise measurements at every crucial step, reinforcing device reliability and enhancing patient comfort for the long-term. Our commitment to accuracy and reliability supports the dependable performance of your dialysis machines, contributing to improved patient care throughout the dialysis process.


Temperature Sensors

Hemodialysis machines utilize integrated temperature sensors to control the dialysate temperature and monitor body temperature. For accurate temperature management and monitoring, these sensors use a variety of technologies, including thermocouples, NTC thermistors, and resistive thermal devices (RTDs). A temperature sensor for a dialysis machine needs to consider several crucial factors, including accuracy, response time, size, and material options. 

Force Sensors

In medical pump applications, force sensors are crucial for detecting occlusions, which are obstructions or partial blocks in tubes that limit fluid flow. Force sensors are utilized during dialysis on both the arterial and venous sides of the tubing. Pressure builds up due to an obstruction on the venous side, expanding the tube and turning on the force sensor to warn the operator. On the artery side, the pump created a vacuum in the tube that causes tension in the force sensor. To preserve device functionality and ensure patient safety during dialysis, occlusions must be detected because they might result in serious issues such as pressure build-up and potential harm to patients.

Pressure Sensors

Pressure sensors in dialysis machines are crucial for real-time blood pressure monitoring at various stages of the therapy. The arterial sensor keeps track of the patient's blood pressure while protecting the red blood cells from harm. The venous sensor, on the other hand, keeps track of the pressure of the dialyzed blood returning to the patient and aids in the detection of potential problems such as line obstruction. Both sensors turn pressure changes into electrical signals for the control system using piezoresistive technology or MEMs technology (micro-fused) gauge.


Striking a balance between high accuracy (as tight as ±0.25%) for optimal flow rate control and a minimal total error band (around ±1.0%) ensures reliable and safe readings that are crucial for precise patient care. Utilizing biocompatible materials, such as titanium, stainless steel, or medical-grade silicones, helps to reduce the possibility of adverse patient reactions. 

Ultrasonic Sensors

Air bubble detectors are critical components in dialysis machines because they detect the presence of air bubbles in the system. Air bubble detectors are implemented at the dialysis machine's venous channel to detect any air bubbles in the blood circulation. When air bubbles are identified in the blood, the dialysis machine can remove them using a bubble trap before delivering the blood to the patient. If a substantial volume of air is discovered, the dialysis process can be stopped. The sensitivity to bubble size is an important consideration in air bubble detection. TE detectors can detect air bubbles as small as 25% of the inner diameter of the tubing. Because larger bubbles offer greater risk, these detectors can be programmed to detect just bubbles of a certain size or larger, ignoring smaller ones if necessary.


Another critical factor to consider is the requirement for non-contact monitoring to avoid any contamination within the system. Ultrasonic-based air bubble detectors are particularly useful since they can detect air bubbles within the tube without coming into touch with the blood. By incorporating these detectors into the hemodialysis process, extra safety safeguards are built, thereby improving patient well-being and dialysis outcomes.



At TE Connectivity, our advanced sensors meticulously help monitor parameters such as liquid level, flow, temperature, and pressure in dialysis machines, offering exceptional safety and performance. Detecting potential issues like bubbles, blockages, and leaks, they help significantly bolster system reliability. We recognize the challenges that manufacturers face in the medical device sector, and we are here to support you every step of the way.

dialysis machine testimonial

"TE Connectivity is one of our most important suppliers, if not our most important supplier. And that's because what makes our dialysis solution most special compared to conventional dialysis machines is the sensors and software, it's advanced technology. It's about making a profound and permanent change to the entire field of dialysis"


Q: Are there specific standards or regulations for peritoneal and hemodialysis device sensors?

A: Yes, some specific standards and regulations govern medical device components, sensors included, to help ensure performance, reliability, and patient safety. Some examples of notable standards and regulations relevant to dialysis sensors include the AAMI Blood Pressure Transducer Standard, DIN EN IEC 60761 for temperature sensors, IEC61000-4-3 for EMI/EMC Noise Immunity, and IEC 60601-2-16 for hemodialysis equipment safety and performance, including air bubble detectors.


Q: How are our dialysis sensors tested for reliability and durability?

A: TE Sensors undergo extensive testing, including storage temperature testing as per IEC 60068-2 at -20°C and 70°C for 96 hours each, temperature cycling between these extremes for 100 cycles, hot damp heat testing at 40°C with 85% RH for 96 hours, and vibration and shock testing following IEC 60068-2-64 and IEC 6068-2-27 (R10) respectively.


Q: How are TE dialysis sensors calibrated and, how often do they need recalibration?

A: TE dialysis sensors are typically factory-calibrated and do not require any recalibration in the field.


Q: What are the environmental operating conditions for our dialysis sensors (temperature, humidity, etc.)?

A: Featured sensors typically operate between 0°C to 65°C and a max of 85% relative humidity.


Q: What types of non-contact/non-invasive sensors are available for dialysis?

TE has many non-invasive sensors available, such as ultrasonic level sensors, ultrasonic air bubble sensors, and occlusion detection force sensors